The article considers the history of Gwerddon, a multi-disciplinary research e-journal launched in April 2007, which has to date (January 2019) published more than one hundred original articles. Its origins lie in the growth of Welsh-language teaching in Welsh universities in the 1970s and 1980s, the campaign to establish a Welsh-language federal college at a time when the federal University of Wales was in crisis, and the urgent need for Welsh-language scholarship to be equally represented in the research assessment exercises of the RAE/REF. The study considers the journal’s impact factors and its role in the development of a Welsh presence on the burgeoning web of the early twenty-first century, and argues that its continuation rests both on Welsh Government educational policy in general, and the financial resilience of the Higher Education sector at a time of severe challenges.
Gwerddon: Greening a desert? Some comments on the history of a Welsh-langua...
Gwerddon: Greening a desert? Some comments on the history of a Welsh-language e-periodical
Health and salvation: medicine, the body and the moral order in colonial Be...
Health and salvation: medicine, the body and the moral order in colonial Bengal 1840-1935
Drawing on a rich seam of archival material on Welsh missionary activity in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Bengal, the article addresses ways in which care of the sick became a central, if problematic, part of Christian Mission. While the building of dispensaries, clinics and hospitals provided both a platform and a social visibility to the evangelisation process, they also exposed deeper tensions around the politics of gender and the implantation of Western medical practices in a colonised society.
‘Memory Contests’, narrative and history in Wehlau’s Heimatmuseum: Negotiat...
‘Memory Contests’, narrative and history in Wehlau’s Heimatmuseum: Negotiating the complicated history and mem...
Between 1945 and 1948, up to twelve million Germans who lived in Eastern Europe were expelled following changes to the country’s borders. Many of these Germans resettled in the Federal Republic of Germany, where they came to be known as ‘expellees’. To commemorate their lost homeland, the expellees opened small museums dedicated to the areas of expulsion. This article explores the ways in which history and memory are portrayed in the museum representing the former East Prussian town of Wehlau. By investigating themes such as the representation of the homeland, the Second World War and the integration of the expellees into West Germany, this article will highlight the similarities, differences and tensions in the expellee and wider German memory culture.
Building Wales's bridges, Ben Barr (2008)
The paper reports on three epochs of bridge building in Wales. The first period, from Roman times to the start of the Industrial Revolution, was dominated by the use of local materials (stone and timber) by local craftsmen. The second period was an integral part of the Industrial Revolution when new bridge building materials (cast iron, wrought iron and steel) were developed and used in the construction of canal and railway bridges. The third period was associated with the growth of traffic following World War II when concrete and steel became the dominant bridge building materials during the development of the trunk roads and motorways.
The paper shows, in simple terms, the fundamental structural engineering developments underpinning these developments as new materials became available for bridge building. In particular, the evolvement of various beam cross-sections, tubes and trusses is discussed. Attention is also given to the significant contribution of four world-renowned bridge builders: William Edwards who built the famous arch bridge at Pontypridd; Thomas Telford who built the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and the Menai Suspension Bridge; Robert Stephenson who built tubular bridges at Conway and over the Menai Straits and I. K. Brunel who built the unique Chepstow Railway Bridge and the railway timber viaduct at Landore, Swansea. Finally, the paper draws attention to some of the unique bridges of Wales.
The Natural Law Ethics of John Duns Scotus: does it have ‘Welsh’ connection...
The Natural Law Ethics of John Duns Scotus: does it have ‘Welsh’ connections?
It is argued that John Duns Scotus’s treatment of concrete moral topics such as slavery, inheritance and marriage exhibits characteristics of medieval Welsh laws. This is explicable by the latter’s closeness to the ancient Brythonic laws of Scotland. Their commonalities explain John Duns Scotus’s attitude to these topics and the use he makes of natural law theory alongside the Book of Genesis to defend his viewpoints. The inference is made that his aim was to develop a critical account of the natural law which could defend the ideal of the ancient Brythonic laws of Scotland against Anglo-Norman hostility.
Sir John Prise: Mediaevalist or Humanist?
Sir John Prise (1501/2‒1555), of Brecon, was among the most influential servants of the Crown in Wales and the Marches at a time of great political and religious change. He was also one of the first among the Welsh to respond positively to some of the new cultural and intellectual emphases connected with the Renaissance. This article discusses the tension between, on the one hand, Prise’s learning and humanist outlook and, on the other hand, his attachment to the popular account of the history of Britain presented by Geoffrey of Monmouth in the twelfth century, an account that was largely rejected by the Italian Polydore Vergil in a work first published in the 1530s.
Historical climate: The potential of Wales’s documentary sources
With the uncertainty of climate change, reconstructions from parameteorological and phenological records provide a strong basis for the analysis of past and present climate. However, very little research has been completed on the historical climate of Wales, which is variable throughout the country due to factors such as topography and atmospheric circulation. This is particularly so for west Wales, which has a diverse range of environments from the upland ‘green desert’ to the fertile coastal plains, where an extensive history may potentially be reconstructed from un-tapped documentary resources. The potential is immense as possible sources of meteorological information include all religious, official and personal documentation, which may provide an insight into the relationship between the Welsh and the weather.
Cyflwyniad yr Athro Gareth Williams ar ysgrifau sydd wedi dylanwadu arno
Mae'r Athro Gareth Williams yn hanesydd disglair, yn arbenigo ar ddiwylliant poblogaidd yng Nghymru yn y 19eg a'r 20fed ganrif. Mae bellach yn Athro Emeritws Prifysgol De Cymru. Yma, mewn darlith a draddododd ym Mhrifysgol Abertawe ar 17 Ebrill 2013, mae'n trafod pa ysgrifau sydd wedi dylanwadu ar ei yrfa.
‘A new world where justice dwells’: Morgan John Rhys’ (1760–1804) vision
In this article it is argued how Morgan John Rhys’ (1760–1804) belief in the Second Coming and Millennium influenced his participation in the campaign to abolish slavery, the French Revolution and America. It is shown how Millenarianism was a force that shaped Morgan John Rhys’ worldview and influenced his social action and campaigns. Also, it is shown how William Williams, Pantycelyn (1717–91), preceded Morgan John Rhys in this context. My argument, with comparative reference to Williams and Rhys, is that Evangelicalism and the Enlightenment were not intellectual enemies, and that Millenarianism was one of the most important driving forces in the lives of these two men, who were integral to the life of eighteenth century Wales.
The early response to Williams Pantycelyn by Saunders Lewis
Saunders Lewis’ Williams Pantycelyn (1927) was the most exciting and controversial work of literary criticism to appear in twentieth century Welsh letters. In ten memorable and often brilliant chapters, Lewis analysed the work of the eighteenth century hymnist not according to the usual Protestant norms but in terms of medieval Catholic mysticism on the one hand and the then novel Freudian and Jungian psychology on the other. The book caused a literary and critical storm. Among those who affirmed its counterintuitive nature was the poet T. Gwynn Jones; its thesis was rejected by the philosopher E. Keri Evans while the preacher-poet Moelwyn Hughes found the volume objectionable in the extreme. Such was the power of Lewis’ analysis, however, that for more than a generation it came to embody a new orthodoxy in the scholarly understanding of William Williams. It was not until the 1960s that this orthodoxy began to be overturned. The accompanying essay describes how this process evolved.
The Star in the Cross: the effect of the early imperial laws of Rome on the...
The Star in the Cross: the effect of the early imperial laws of Rome on the relationship between the Church an...
The relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and the Jews has always been difficult, and this article explores the way in which the early imperial laws of Rome influenced that relationship. Having discussed a selection of laws, consideration is given to how they affected the social standing of the Jews in a growingly Christianised world. There is also a discussion of how a few of the early anti-Jewish laws seemed to be reintroduced during the Middle Ages, as well as during the horrific event which proved to be fateful to the Jewish-Christian relationship, the Holocaust. The article concludes by examining the significance of those imperial laws and questions the relationship of the Church and the Jews in the twenty-first century.
'Y Wladfa: Settlement without colonisation?' Geraldine Lublin (2009)
This paper offers a fresh analysis of a number of aspects of Y Wladfa, the Welsh settlement in Patagonia, by bringing into the discussion the notion of ‘liminality’ as interpreted by postcolonial theory. After providing some historical background of the settlement that takes full account of the Argentinean perspective, we set out to explore the pronounced duality characteristic of the Welsh pioneers in Chubut in their stance as virtual colonisers and colonised. This double consciousness, which can be traced back to the very origins of the Fenter Fawr, is studied both in a general context and with particular reference to the complex relationship that developed between the Welsh immigrants and Patagonia’s original peoples.