In this article, we determine and analyse possible solutions to the problem of partitioning a circular cylinder into three regions of equal volume using the least surface area. The solutions are related to the minimal energy arrangement of films in dry aqueous foam confined in a cylinder. We enumerate the possible solutions and use the numerical simulation software Surface Evolver to calculate the area in each case. We determine the least area configuration for all values of the aspect ratio of the cylinder. We find only four possible optimal solutions, each appropriate over different intervals of the aspect ratio, and give closed form expressions for each one.
Least area partition of a cylinder into three parts
Bilingual education in the twenty-first century: A review of the internatio...
Bilingual education in the twenty-first century: A review of the international context
With the publication of its Welsh-medium Education Strategy in April 2010, the Welsh Assembly Government recognised the leading role of Welsh-medium education in the field of bilingual education throughout Europe and the world during the last fifty years. As the system further develops with increasing numbers of pupils choosing bilingual education in Wales, it is emphasised that it is important to be aware of the patterns and models available in other bilingual communities that successfully integrate bilingualism or multilingualism into their provision so that we can understand their relevance to our particular situation in Wales. This article gives an overview of the most recent developments in bilingual education in an international context and considers the important issues that emerge as this type of education continues to develop to cater for the needs of pupils in bilingual and multilingual communities throughout the world in the twenty-first century.
Annie Ellis ‘Cwrt Mawr’, the Aberystwyth Canorion Society and traditional f...
Annie Ellis ‘Cwrt Mawr’, the Aberystwyth Canorion Society and traditional folksong in Wales
This article outlines the valuable contribution made by Annie Ellis (neé Davies) to the folksong revival in Wales and in particular her influence in the Aberystwyth/Cardiganshire district during the early decades of the Twentieth Century. It draws on original correspondence, fieldwork diaries, notated transcriptions, newspaper articles (in Welsh and French) and phonograph recordings from the National Library of Wales, the British Library, Bibliotèque Nationale de France and private collections. The following areas are discussed:
- Annie Ellis’s involvement in folksong related activities at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth, including the establishing of the Canorion Society, folksong collecting competitions and performances of J. Lloyd Williams’s operetta, Aelwyd Angharad (Angharad’s Hearth).
- Six historically significant concerts of traditional Welsh music given by a quartet of undergraduate singers in Paris during March 1911, including performances at Le Lied en Tout Pays and the Richelieu Amphitheatre (Sorbonne). This visit represented the embodiment of the Entente Cordiale established between Britain and France during the years leading up to the First World War. Association with Madame Lucie Barbier (head of vocal studies at the University) and the positive response of the Parisian press.
- Ruth Lewis and Annie Ellis’s three day fieldwork visit to Landyssul, Pencader and the surrounding district in June 1913 and the outcome of their folk song collecting, including an evaluation of the texts and melodies collected.
The article also highlights the role of one Edwardian woman in developing the cultural life of Wales and her attempts to promote Welsh traditional music on an international platform.
A pilot study of the speech errors of candidates of the WJEC Use of Welsh e...
A pilot study of the speech errors of candidates of the WJEC Use of Welsh examinations
This paper is based on a pilot study aimed at defining and identifying the most common speech errors made by candidates for the WJEC’s Use of Welsh examinations at Intermediate and Advanced Levels in the CQFW, during the oral tests associated with these examinations. The paper explores how the speech errors observed can be classified, and if it is possible to use the resulting data to discover whether they can be regarded as linguistic variables in their own right and used to explore their relationship with non-linguistic factors such as context, age, upbringing and social background as part of a comprehensive study based on a much larger sample of informants.
Linguistic variation amongst Welsh speakers in Treorchy at the end of the s...
Linguistic variation amongst Welsh speakers in Treorchy at the end of the seventies
This paper attempts to account for the linguistic variation amongst the Welsh speakers of the Treorci area of the Rhondda Fawr valley at the end of the 1970s. This is done by using and adapting sociolinguistic techniques developed by pioneers in the field, in particular William Labov. The paper begins with a classical phonological description of the Welsh used by the native speakers recorded. It then goes on to explore the relationship between the ‘free’ variation recorded in informants’ speech, through the concept of the linguistic variable and the social network. A detailed analysis of the data is given – both quantitative and qualitative – which adds to our knowledge of Welsh dialects, and also helps us to understand how social factors influence the choice of language by individual speakers.
Teachers as learners – perspectives on second language practitioners’ confi...
Teachers as learners – perspectives on second language practitioners’ confidence in supporting Welsh Language ...
Welsh Language Development in the Foundation Phase in Wales is an area of some significance and thus this article focuses on the perspectives of practitioners who speak Welsh as a second language and who teach Welsh as a second language in the Foundation Phase. The depth of challenge of teaching a language in which they are not entirely confident is evaluated, considering some of the implications of their perspectives. The confidence of the practitioners is considered in the context of Welsh policy and curriculum, which suggests that this phase and area of education may be rather invisible in terms of the development of Welsh, but that it impacts a significant number of Foundation Phase pupils in Wales. It is suggested that this element of the Foundation Phase requires consideration and attention in the very near future.
Bilingual Juries: A Celtic Dilemma?
Although the criminal justice system is not a devolved matter, elements of criminal law administration, which is the process of implementing the law, have developed distinctive Welsh structures and aspects. This can be seen in the context of Assembly Government crime prevention policies, and in particular the issue of youth crime, for example. In a sense, the identity of Wales within the constitution has led to the creation of certain distinctively Welsh processes and policies in terms of criminal justice administration.
This paper gives consideration to a specific issue relating to criminal justice and its relationship to identity, within two jurisdictions. The question under discussion is, should there be a right to bilingual juries in certain criminal cases in Wales and Ireland. I shall analyse the relationship between jury service as an obligation and privilege of citizenship, and the competence of Irish and Welsh speakers as a linguistic group for jury service. The analysis will consider also the relationship between the concept of jury service as a privilege of citizenship and the rights and interests of individual speakers within the criminal justice system.
It can be seen that this is a matter that demands a multifaceted evaluation from a variety of perspectives. This paper deals also with the objection to bilingual juries, and considers how granting bilingual juries can be consistent with the principle of random jury selection (the basis of the main objection to bilingual juries in Wales and Ireland), thus securing a representative, competent, fair and impartial tribunal.
'Towards the light': Parents’ reasons for choosing Welsh education for thei...
'Towards the light': Parents’ reasons for choosing Welsh education for their children in Cwm Rhymni
Welsh-medium education has long been seen as an effective language planning tool in order to transmit the Welsh language in Wales. According to the 2001 Census, there has been a substantial increase in the numbers of Welsh speakers 3–15 years old, especially in south–east Wales, since the 1991 Census. The aim of this paper is to elaborate upon this quantitative data by providing qualitative data with regard to the main reasons and incentives for parents to choose this educational option for their children. The study location is Cwm Rhymni, Caerffili county. A combination of quantitative questionnaires and qualitative in-depth interviews were administered amongst parents from the meithrin, primary and secondary school sectors in Cwm Rhymni. The reasons why parents choose this educational system for their children were cultural, educational, economic and personal. However, it is pertinent to note from the outset, that the parents chose Welsh-medium education for their children in this area for mainly cultural reasons, rather than economic reasons which featured heavily in past studies such as research by Williams et al. (1978) on bilingual education in the Rhondda. This study is the first in a larger corpus of work and one that hopes to address the existing lacunae in the Sociology of Language in Wales, especially as there is a lack of Sociology of Language studies through the medium of Welsh in Wales.
The importance of chemical fingerprinting for Icelandic volcanic ash: The G...
The importance of chemical fingerprinting for Icelandic volcanic ash: The Grákolla tephra, Torfajökull volcano
Tephrochronology studies in the North Atlantic typically focus on large scale silicic volcanic eruptions such as the Askja 1875, Hekla 1104 and Öræfajokull 1362. However, smaller-scale Icelandic eruptions are becoming more important as regional time marker horizons and have the potential for application across widerdistances e.g. the Eyjafjallajökull eruption of 2010. The Grákolla tephra is one such layer, sourced within the Torfajökull volcanic system. On the basis of major element chemistry, the tephra layer exhibits an identical geochemical fingerprint to the Landnám tephra, which is also sourced from the Torfajökull system. However, distinct differences are discernible on the basis of trace element chemistry, although some data overlap remains. This realisation highlights the potential for introducing significant age discrepancies to a dating framework based on recent silicic Torfajökull tephra deposits in the Faroe Islands if tephra identification is based solely on major element chemistry. Six hundred years separate the eruptions, which although a relatively short time frame for geological events, represents a significant time frame for the dating of human events.
Identity and Language in the works of Grazia Deledda
This article aims to draw critical attention to interesting features in the work of the Sardinian author, Grazia Deledda (1871-1936), an author who has not received sufficient critical attention. The article examines the relationship between identity, language and narrative in two of Deledda’s key novels, namely La madre (The Woman and the Priest / The Mother) and Il segreto dell'uomo solitario (The Secret of the Solitary Man). It analyses the way in which the two protagonists undergo a journey of self-understanding by facing their hopes and troubles in life. We see that while linguistic interaction is necessary for some, language itself serves as a weapon for others to control their own identity and even the identity of others.
The Welsh Government’s plan to introduce a system of presumed consent for o...
The Welsh Government’s plan to introduce a system of presumed consent for organ donation
The Welsh Assembly Government will introduce a system of presumed consent for organ donation in 2015. According to this scheme, if adults in Wales have not expressed their opposition to the use of their organs after their death, and in the absence of opposition from their families, permission to use their organs will be presumed by the authorities. According to the present system, the onus is on the individual to register as a donor, but if this new scheme is implemented, it will be the responsibility of the individual to deregister as a donor. This essay is a legal and ethical evaluation of the proposed changes.
Muslims in Rural Wales: disconnection, faith and belonging
In recent years, considerable attention has been given to the experiences of minority groups which are marginalised within a rural context. However, little attention has been paid to religious minorities in rural regions. This scarcity of attention is surprising considering the attention paid to religion in issues of multiculturalism and inclusive citizenship. This paper discusses the experiences of one particular religious group, Muslims, in rural west Wales. The article concentrates on experiences of absence from the landscape (i.e. the physical landscape and the broader images and values that convey ideas about places), which can create difficulties in fostering a sense of community. It also looks at local Muslims’ construction of the landscape in moral and Christian terms. The paper suggests that these experiences transcend ideas of ‘exclusion/belonging’, and attest to a complex relationship between local Muslims and this rural region.