Health services offer a privileged space to define the proper relationship of the citizen and the modern state. Individuals have been expected to make choices in health care in Wales and England since the 1980s. A new vaccine against some types of cervical cancer was recently introduced for girls. Parents are expected to consent on behalf of their daughters. This paper reports the results of the largest qualitative study in this area world-wide. It depicts attitudes to health care choice and discusses parents’ experiences of consenting or not. Parents’ decisional strategies in the face of uncertainty are analysed. Consequences of the study relate to the individuals’ relationship with the Welsh National Health Service (NHS) and to developing a concept of Welsh citizenship.
Choice and the citizen? Health decisions and their implications for develop...
Choice and the citizen? Health decisions and their implications for developing a Welsh citizenship
Woyzeck Büchner, Peter Szondi and the crisis of drama
In this article Myfanwy Miles Jones analyses Büchner’s portrayal of the central character’s developing psychosis in the light of R. D. Laing’s existential psychiatric theory. Observing the progressive nature of Büchner’s dramatisation of the depth and coplexity of the human mind in turn reveals the formal limitations of drama in the Nineteenth Century. Setting Woyczeck in the context of Szondi’s formal analysis of modern drama, the article argues that Büchner’s treatment of madness casts new light on the formal development of modernist drama and argues that the fact that the play is unfinished is an inevitable consequence of the project itself, given that the formal resolution of the dramatic situation required the existence of conditions which had not at that time come into being.
The legacy of coal mining in the south Wales coalfield: water contamination...
The legacy of coal mining in the south Wales coalfield: water contamination and remedial options
Historic coal mining and the associated processes have had a detrimental effect on the natural environment in the south Wales coalfield as contaminated mine drainage from abandoned mines discharges into the local hydrological system. The legacy of coal mining includes the discharge of contaminated mine drainage from several abandoned mines and the formation of insoluble iron minerals. This article discusses the underground processes that lead to the formation of contaminated water and iron minerals. Four abandoned coal mines located in the western part of the coal field and the remediation systems operational at these sites were investigated. Contaminated mine waters at these sites are being remediated through the removal of iron so that the final concentrations are in line with those recommended by the Water Framework Directive.
Faith’s reaction to modern science
A version of this article appeared originally in The SCM Core Text on World Christianity in the 20th Century, co-authored with Dr Martin Conway (London: SCM Press 2008). Having set the debate between Science and Christianity in its historical context, it explores a range of contemporary scientific questions such as Quantum Theory and Relativity, Cosmology, The discovery of DNA, Genetic Manipulation and Advances in Medical Treatment. The final section examines Roman Catholic responses, Evangelical and fundamentalist approaches and ecumenical responses to some of these key issues. The article concludes by affirming that an engagement between Christian theology and contemporary developments in science is essential if the contemporary articulation of faith is to have meaning and coherence.
The role of stem cells in cardiac tissue regeneration: evaluating treatment...
The role of stem cells in cardiac tissue regeneration: evaluating treatments and identifying risk
This article evaluates the potential of a range of stem cells in cardiac tissue regeneration following a heart attack. Following an initial review of relevant research, some of the main biological mechanisms involved in cardiac tissue regeneration are presented, including:
- the role of transcription factors, such as oxytocin and c-kit and paracrine transcription factors;
- studies on zebra fish that display mechanisms such as the regnerative role of cardionogen 1, 2- and 3- in reversing the effect of induced cardiac phenotypes that normally regulate heart development;
- delivery and engraftment mechanisms, including viral and plasmid vectors, electrical stimulation and nantoechnology.
The results of in vitro and in vivo experiments are reported that have shown the clinical potential of stem cells as well as their immunological and tumorgenic risks. At the time of writing (2012), while the clinical evidence is limited, complex therapeutic models are proposed for future development in the field.
‘Nudging is as important as the right to use the language’: behaviour chang...
‘Nudging is as important as the right to use the language’: behaviour change and Welsh language policy
A behavioural approach to policy has already been applied to a range of public policy challenges. This article explores and develops the relationship between a behavioural approach to policy and the field of language policy and planning. The Welsh Government’s recent language strategies offer some evidence of an embryonic relationship between the two fields, with the ambitious target of a million Welsh speakers offering policy imperative to the application of behavioural insights in support of revitalization efforts. This article explains that efforts to revitalize the Welsh language have depended on an understanding of behaviour that emphasizes the rational characteristics of behaviour. It is argued that this dependence neglects alternative understandings of behaviour and associated nudge policies.
Lessons from Northern Ireland: A Welsh jurisdiction and the future of legal...
Lessons from Northern Ireland: A Welsh jurisdiction and the future of legal education in Wales
Devolution has led to significant divergences between the law of Wales and the law of England. Furthermore, the question of whether a separate Welsh jurisdiction is needed is increasingly being given serious consideration. With this in mind, this article examines the issue of legal education in Wales, and considers what developments are needed in order to meet the challenges and opportunities resulting from devolution, as well as any additional developments that would be needed if a Welsh jurisdiction were to be established in the future. In so doing, the article sets out some key findings from an empirical research project carried out in Northern Ireland, which as a small jurisdiction with a devolved government within the United Kingdom, provides an instructive point of reference.
Turbulence in the solar wind
The Cluster spacecraft are used in order to investigate the solar wind, and because there are four spacecraft, it allows a measurement of the 3-D structure of the solar wind. Since turbulence is a 3-D phenomenon, Cluster is ideal for investigating turbulence. These observations show that the turbulence at proton gyration scales are dominated by Kinetic Alfvén waves as well as magnetic vortices. This research strengthens the hypothesis that Kinetic Alfvén waves are present in the solar wind and suggests for the first time that waves and magnetic vortices can coexist in the solar wind.
Are small peptides a nutrition source for plant and micro-organisms in the ...
Are small peptides a nutrition source for plant and micro-organisms in the maritime Antarctic?
Nitrogen (N) is the most important element that controls plant growth. During the past twenty years, our understanding of which N species are important for plant growth has developed significantly but it is still thought that large nitrogenous molecules need to be broken down into their constituent amino acids to be available for plant and microbial growth. This paper builds on our understanding of this process and suggests that small peptides are equally important for microbial nutrition and that soil microbes outcompete plants for low molecular weight N compounds in maritime Antarctic soil.
(Historical and contemporary use of mynd i (go to) in Welsh: A study of gra...
(Historical and contemporary use of mynd i (go to) in Welsh: A study of grammaticalization as language change)
The use of verbs of motion to express futurity is recognized cross-linguistically as an example of grammaticalization, whereby a construction changes over time to be less concrete and more grammatical. A number of historical and contemporary Welsh corpora are qualitatively analysed in order to identify the diachronic development of ‘mynd i’ (going to) to express the future in Welsh. Some examples of the grammaticalized form of ‘mynd i’ are found in texts from the sixteenth and seventeenth century, indicating that the grammaticalization process started at least 500 years ago, but the construction does not become prominent until the twentieth century. It is argued that this is an example of the influence of English grammar, where ‘BE + going to’ has also historically gone through a process of grammaticalization, and that an increase in bilingualism in Wales in the twentieth century has been a factor in normalising the grammaticalized form. A discussion is provided of how the situation of this Welsh construction informs our knowledge of the effect of language contact on grammaticalization.
'One Cry Four Voices': The influence of choral singing on health and welfar...
'One Cry Four Voices': The influence of choral singing on health and welfare in Wales
Since the Nineteenth Century, choral singing has played a prominent part in Welsh culture and society. In the latter part of the Twentieth Century, there were increasing demands to consider the influences of quality of life and well-being on health. As a result, there is a growing field of research that considers the role of the community arts, and choral singing in particular, as social capital, and the way in which they can influence personal and social health and well-being. Due to this growing recognition, this article will consider research that examines the relationship between amateur choir-singing in Wales – as both a musical and social event – and general health and well-being.
(The voice of Welsh missionary women, 1887-1930)
This article explores the cultural implications of female celebrity acquired through involvement in the colonial missionary activity of the Welsh Presbyterian Church. Women were directed to perform particular functions in the process of constructing Christian communities in British colonies, among which were the conversion of other women and the provision of descriptions and explanations of the mission to a home audience. Along with lectures and sermons by missionaries on furlough, and missionary exhibitions, the main transmission route for this communication was the denominational missionary press. This article examines the ways in which the female missionaries presented themselves and their work to the audience at home in the missionary press between 1887 and 1930, and suggests that the images they presented, and the undertones that can be found in their writing, were the main inspiration for Welsh Presbyterian women to support the missionary cause, and form themselves into a remarkable movement that became a vital channel for the sponsorship of missionary work.