A behavioural approach to policy has already been applied to a range of public policy challenges. This article explores and develops the relationship between a behavioural approach to policy and the field of language policy and planning. The Welsh Government’s recent language strategies offer some evidence of an embryonic relationship between the two fields, with the ambitious target of a million Welsh speakers offering policy imperative to the application of behavioural insights in support of revitalization efforts. This article explains that efforts to revitalize the Welsh language have depended on an understanding of behaviour that emphasizes the rational characteristics of behaviour. It is argued that this dependence neglects alternative understandings of behaviour and associated nudge policies.
‘Nudging is as important as the right to use the language’: behaviour chang...
‘Nudging is as important as the right to use the language’: behaviour change and Welsh language policy
Lessons from Northern Ireland: A Welsh jurisdiction and the future of legal...
Lessons from Northern Ireland: A Welsh jurisdiction and the future of legal education in Wales
Devolution has led to significant divergences between the law of Wales and the law of England. Furthermore, the question of whether a separate Welsh jurisdiction is needed is increasingly being given serious consideration. With this in mind, this article examines the issue of legal education in Wales, and considers what developments are needed in order to meet the challenges and opportunities resulting from devolution, as well as any additional developments that would be needed if a Welsh jurisdiction were to be established in the future. In so doing, the article sets out some key findings from an empirical research project carried out in Northern Ireland, which as a small jurisdiction with a devolved government within the United Kingdom, provides an instructive point of reference.
Turbulence in the solar wind
The Cluster spacecraft are used in order to investigate the solar wind, and because there are four spacecraft, it allows a measurement of the 3-D structure of the solar wind. Since turbulence is a 3-D phenomenon, Cluster is ideal for investigating turbulence. These observations show that the turbulence at proton gyration scales are dominated by Kinetic Alfvén waves as well as magnetic vortices. This research strengthens the hypothesis that Kinetic Alfvén waves are present in the solar wind and suggests for the first time that waves and magnetic vortices can coexist in the solar wind.
Are small peptides a nutrition source for plant and micro-organisms in the ...
Are small peptides a nutrition source for plant and micro-organisms in the maritime Antarctic?
Nitrogen (N) is the most important element that controls plant growth. During the past twenty years, our understanding of which N species are important for plant growth has developed significantly but it is still thought that large nitrogenous molecules need to be broken down into their constituent amino acids to be available for plant and microbial growth. This paper builds on our understanding of this process and suggests that small peptides are equally important for microbial nutrition and that soil microbes outcompete plants for low molecular weight N compounds in maritime Antarctic soil.
(Historical and contemporary use of mynd i (go to) in Welsh: A study of gra...
(Historical and contemporary use of mynd i (go to) in Welsh: A study of grammaticalization as language change)
The use of verbs of motion to express futurity is recognized cross-linguistically as an example of grammaticalization, whereby a construction changes over time to be less concrete and more grammatical. A number of historical and contemporary Welsh corpora are qualitatively analysed in order to identify the diachronic development of ‘mynd i’ (going to) to express the future in Welsh. Some examples of the grammaticalized form of ‘mynd i’ are found in texts from the sixteenth and seventeenth century, indicating that the grammaticalization process started at least 500 years ago, but the construction does not become prominent until the twentieth century. It is argued that this is an example of the influence of English grammar, where ‘BE + going to’ has also historically gone through a process of grammaticalization, and that an increase in bilingualism in Wales in the twentieth century has been a factor in normalising the grammaticalized form. A discussion is provided of how the situation of this Welsh construction informs our knowledge of the effect of language contact on grammaticalization.
'One Cry Four Voices': The influence of choral singing on health and welfar...
'One Cry Four Voices': The influence of choral singing on health and welfare in Wales
Since the Nineteenth Century, choral singing has played a prominent part in Welsh culture and society. In the latter part of the Twentieth Century, there were increasing demands to consider the influences of quality of life and well-being on health. As a result, there is a growing field of research that considers the role of the community arts, and choral singing in particular, as social capital, and the way in which they can influence personal and social health and well-being. Due to this growing recognition, this article will consider research that examines the relationship between amateur choir-singing in Wales – as both a musical and social event – and general health and well-being.
(The voice of Welsh missionary women, 1887-1930)
This article explores the cultural implications of female celebrity acquired through involvement in the colonial missionary activity of the Welsh Presbyterian Church. Women were directed to perform particular functions in the process of constructing Christian communities in British colonies, among which were the conversion of other women and the provision of descriptions and explanations of the mission to a home audience. Along with lectures and sermons by missionaries on furlough, and missionary exhibitions, the main transmission route for this communication was the denominational missionary press. This article examines the ways in which the female missionaries presented themselves and their work to the audience at home in the missionary press between 1887 and 1930, and suggests that the images they presented, and the undertones that can be found in their writing, were the main inspiration for Welsh Presbyterian women to support the missionary cause, and form themselves into a remarkable movement that became a vital channel for the sponsorship of missionary work.
Representation Theory and Symplectic Quotient Singularities
The first part of this article is an informal introduction to the representation theory of the symmetric group, which is intended for the working mathematician who knows no representation theory. In the second part we explain, more generally, how representation theory can be used to study symplectic quotient singularities. Namely, one can use representation theory to decide when these singular spaces admit crepant resolutions.
The effects of language frequency on adults knowledge of the Welsh plural s...
The effects of language frequency on adults knowledge of the Welsh plural system
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of quality and quantity of linguistic input (i.e. to what extent are individuals exposed to a language from different sources during their lives) on Welsh-English bilingual adults’ acquisition of the Welsh plural system. Previous research found differences between bilingual children from different language backgrounds. While it is possible to reduce the difference with an increase in exposure to the language, however, when the structures are complex how quickly (if at all) can any difference be reduced, especially when the system is used inconsistently across adults. However, to what extent these differences reduce is unclear, as no research has been conducted on individuals over age 11. The aim of the study was to assess Welsh-English bilingual adults’ abilities to create plural words in Welsh, in order to trace the extent the differences seen between children have reduced over time.
This leaf: the nature, origins and purposes of leaf colours
The state of the environment and the passage of time are reflected in the changing colours of the plants around us. Chlorophyll, the green pigment of leaves, captures the energy of sunlight that drives photosynthesis and powers the biosphere. The disappearance of chlorophyll from autumn leaves reveals the yellows and oranges of another family of plant pigments, the carotenoids. Carotenoids protect plants from stresses and are also responsible for the colours of many flowers and fruits. In autumn, the leaves of species such as maples make red and purple anthocyanins, which are members of a diverse family of pigments and defence chemicals. Plants use pigments to send signals to pollinators, dispersers and predators, among which are humans, who have a special physiological and psychological responsiveness to the plant chemistry that colours our world.
The learner’s voice: The experiences of adults learning Welsh in north Wale...
The learner’s voice: The experiences of adults learning Welsh in north Wales
This paper discusses an ambitious study of adult learners of Welsh in north Wales. Over 1,000 people have taken part in the project, which is studying the experiences of learners throughout the region over a period of three years. This is the most comprehensive study of its kind in the field. The work is led by the North Wales Welsh for Adults Centre and the ESRC Centre for Bilingualism Research at Bangor University. Between September 2008 and August 2010, two questionnaires were distributed to beginners on all north Wales providers’ courses. The results of those questionnaires are discussed below, including aspects such as the learners’ background, their reasons for learning Welsh, their experiences during their course and their satisfaction with the provision. The history of Welsh for Adults is outlined and the research is set in the context of language revitalization and planning in Wales and beyond.
The effect of language on physical rehabilitation: A study of the influence...
The effect of language on physical rehabilitation: A study of the influence of language on the effectiveness o...
In an area of Wales where 50% of the population is bilingual one community physical rehabilitation service had no Welsh-speaking therapists. An internationally standardised outcome measure was used to assess the effectiveness of rehabilitation in this area. This revealed that Welsh speaking patients had significantly poorer results from rehabilitation than non-Welsh speakers (p<0.05), while there was no significant difference where the therapists were bilingual. The results suggest that therapists’ ability to speak patients’ first language impacts on therapy effectiveness. The percentage of individuals who could speak Welsh referred (by health or social care professionals) was compared with the percentage of Welsh speakers which would have been anticipated given the percentage in the general population. Significantly fewer Welsh speakers were referred to the rehabilitation service than the anticipated percentage (p<0.001). Whilst this suggests professionals’ inability to speak Welsh may impact negatively on access to services for Welsh speakers, there may be other multifactorial psycho-social reasons to consider.