The conference aims to showcase leading scientific research by Welsh language scientists and to nurture a Welsh language scientific community. The conference provides a platform to present and discuss various topics within the sciences. The Conference will be conducted in Welsh, and anyone with an interest in science is welcome to register, be they students, academics, members of the public or learners in schools and further education colleges.
Science Conference 2021 (17/6/21)
Y Gwyddonydd – cyfrol 33, 2013
Y Gwyddonydd, Cyfrol 33 – Rhifyn Hanner Canmlwyddiant, 1963-2013
Ymddangosodd Y Gwyddonydd, cyfnodolyn gwyddonol Cymraeg, am y tro cyntaf yn 1963, ac fe'i cyhoeddwyd yn gyson hyd at 1996. I ddathlu'r achlysur fe wnaeth y Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol ariannu a chydlynu rhifyn dathlu arbennig, gan hefyd redeg cystadleuaeth gwyddonydd ifanc. Lansiwyd y rhifyn arbennig yn Eisteddfod Genedlaethol Sir Ddinbych, 2013.
Y Meddwl Modern: Darwin – R. Elwyn Hughes
Charles Darwin, ym marn llawer, oedd y biolegydd mwyaf erioed. Ef a fu'n bennaf cyfrifol am gyflwyno i'r byd un o'r syniadau pwysicaf yn holl hanes bioleg – Theori Esblygiad. Disgrifir yn yr e-lyfr hwn sut y daeth i lunio'i ddamcaniaeth enwog am darddiad pethau byw a sut yr ehangodd arni, yng nghwrs ei yrfa, i gofleidio holl weithgareddau dyn ei hun. Trafodir ei le yng ngwyddoniaeth ei gyfnod, a'r ymateb i'w syniadau. Ystyrir hefyd i ba raddau y bu i amgylchiadau personol a chymdeithasol ei gynorthwyo a'i lesteirio yn ei waith.
The unique ecology of Ophelia bicornis, Savigny (Polychaeta)
The geographical distribution of Ophelia bicornis is restricted to the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea and the western coast of Europe as far as Brittany and southern parts of Great Britain. Within this wide reach, the worm is restricted to very narrow areas (in the context of the rise and fall of the tide) of sand which are generally unsuitable for sustaining populations of animals and plants. Despite this, Ophelia is shown to succeed and flourish there, depending, to a large extent, on physical and physiological adaptation.
Worm Research Project
Nod y prosiect hwn oedd deall gwasgariad y parasit llyngyr y rwmen yng Nghymru. Gweithiodd gwyddonwyr o IBERS, Prifysgol Aberystwyth, gydag aelodau CFfI ar draws Cymru i ddarganfod ym mha ffermydd yr oedd llyngyr y rwmen yn bresennol.
Ensuring future availability of ruminant products of the highest quality
Government statistics illustrate that by 2050 there will be a shortage of meat and milk due to globalpopulationgrowth and the increaseddemand from the Far East. Ensuring food security in terms of availability and nutritionalsafety is, therefore, important for our future existence. Central to achieving milk and meat security are ruminants. Ruminants have a four chambered stomach composed of the reticulum, rumen, abomasum and omasum with microbial fermentation of forage occurring in the rumen. Rumen microbial fermentation is largely responsible for animal production, ruminant product quality and much of greenhouse gas emissions. Indeed, when forage reaches the rumen, the rumen microbes degrade the plant cell wall and subsequently metabolise plant cell content, including plant amino acids and proteins which they convert into proteins that they can utilise. In order to ensure availability of milk and meat of the best possible quality (with the least greenhouse gas emissions) for the future, we must increase our understanding of the plant-microbe interactome using the principles of systems biology and 'omic' technology.
The role of stem cells in cardiac tissue regeneration: evaluating treatment...
The role of stem cells in cardiac tissue regeneration: evaluating treatments and identifying risk
This article evaluates the potential of a range of stem cells in cardiac tissue regeneration following a heart attack. Following an initial review of relevant research, some of the main biological mechanisms involved in cardiac tissue regeneration are presented, including:
- the role of transcription factors, such as oxytocin and c-kit and paracrine transcription factors;
- studies on zebra fish that display mechanisms such as the regnerative role of cardionogen 1, 2- and 3- in reversing the effect of induced cardiac phenotypes that normally regulate heart development;
- delivery and engraftment mechanisms, including viral and plasmid vectors, electrical stimulation and nantoechnology.
The results of in vitro and in vivo experiments are reported that have shown the clinical potential of stem cells as well as their immunological and tumorgenic risks. At the time of writing (2012), while the clinical evidence is limited, complex therapeutic models are proposed for future development in the field.
Are small peptides a nutrition source for plant and micro-organisms in the ...
Are small peptides a nutrition source for plant and micro-organisms in the maritime Antarctic?
Nitrogen (N) is the most important element that controls plant growth. During the past twenty years, our understanding of which N species are important for plant growth has developed significantly but it is still thought that large nitrogenous molecules need to be broken down into their constituent amino acids to be available for plant and microbial growth. This paper builds on our understanding of this process and suggests that small peptides are equally important for microbial nutrition and that soil microbes outcompete plants for low molecular weight N compounds in maritime Antarctic soil.
This leaf: the nature, origins and purposes of leaf colours
The state of the environment and the passage of time are reflected in the changing colours of the plants around us. Chlorophyll, the green pigment of leaves, captures the energy of sunlight that drives photosynthesis and powers the biosphere. The disappearance of chlorophyll from autumn leaves reveals the yellows and oranges of another family of plant pigments, the carotenoids. Carotenoids protect plants from stresses and are also responsible for the colours of many flowers and fruits. In autumn, the leaves of species such as maples make red and purple anthocyanins, which are members of a diverse family of pigments and defence chemicals. Plants use pigments to send signals to pollinators, dispersers and predators, among which are humans, who have a special physiological and psychological responsiveness to the plant chemistry that colours our world.
Invasive animals and their effects on British freshwater ecosystems
The introduction of non-native species presents one of the most significant threats facing biodiversity worldwide. Freshwater ecosystems are particularly affected, due to the widespread introduction of species to rivers and lakes for aquaculture and fishing. This article describes non-native, freshwater animals that are present and invasive in Britain, as well as those which are likely to become established over the coming years. The effects of these animals on freshwater ecosystems are explained, and problems that are faced when attempting to manage invasive species are highlighted. Additionally, the effects of climate change and other stressors on the future distribution of non-native species are discussed.
The invasive plant Rhododendron ponticum L.: Its introduction and establish...
The invasive plant Rhododendron ponticum L.: Its introduction and establishment in Wales, the threat to biodiv...
Rhododendron ponticum L. is an evergreen, woody shrub, belonging to the Ericaceae family. Native to parts of Spain, the Caucasus Mountains and the Black Sea coast, it was introduced to Britain in the eighteenth century. It has since developed into one of Britain’s most problematic invasive species, causing ecological and economic damage. This article discusses the history of R. ponticumin Wales, considering the environmental and social factors which have contributed towards its success here. The current situation in Wales is explained, including the damage it causes and the efforts undertaken to manage its spread. To conclude, the paper will evaluate how future environmental challenges will affect R. ponticum’s spread in Wales.
Bioleg y gell
Cyfres o saith adnodd ysgrifenedig ar Fioleg y Gell gan Lian Evans, Catrin Jones, Iolo ap Gwynn a Deri Tomos.