A behavioural approach to policy has already been applied to a range of public policy challenges. This article explores and develops the relationship between a behavioural approach to policy and the field of language policy and planning. The Welsh Government’s recent language strategies offer some evidence of an embryonic relationship between the two fields, with the ambitious target of a million Welsh speakers offering policy imperative to the application of behavioural insights in support of revitalization efforts. This article explains that efforts to revitalize the Welsh language have depended on an understanding of behaviour that emphasizes the rational characteristics of behaviour. It is argued that this dependence neglects alternative understandings of behaviour and associated nudge policies.
‘Nudging is as important as the right to use the language’: behaviour chang...
‘Nudging is as important as the right to use the language’: behaviour change and Welsh language policy
Lessons from Northern Ireland: A Welsh jurisdiction and the future of legal...
Lessons from Northern Ireland: A Welsh jurisdiction and the future of legal education in Wales
Devolution has led to significant divergences between the law of Wales and the law of England. Furthermore, the question of whether a separate Welsh jurisdiction is needed is increasingly being given serious consideration. With this in mind, this article examines the issue of legal education in Wales, and considers what developments are needed in order to meet the challenges and opportunities resulting from devolution, as well as any additional developments that would be needed if a Welsh jurisdiction were to be established in the future. In so doing, the article sets out some key findings from an empirical research project carried out in Northern Ireland, which as a small jurisdiction with a devolved government within the United Kingdom, provides an instructive point of reference.
Turbulence in the solar wind
The Cluster spacecraft are used in order to investigate the solar wind, and because there are four spacecraft, it allows a measurement of the 3-D structure of the solar wind. Since turbulence is a 3-D phenomenon, Cluster is ideal for investigating turbulence. These observations show that the turbulence at proton gyration scales are dominated by Kinetic Alfvén waves as well as magnetic vortices. This research strengthens the hypothesis that Kinetic Alfvén waves are present in the solar wind and suggests for the first time that waves and magnetic vortices can coexist in the solar wind.
‘Kaleidoscopic Variety’: Bilingual education in Wales today
Bilingual education (i.e. Welsh and English) occurs widely in Wales. By now, considerable variation exists in the provision of bilingual education and, as in the case of minority languages in other European regions, bilingual education in Wales is a combination of education in language heritage/ maintenance (1st Language Welsh) and immersion education (2nd Language Welsh). Because the bilingual education throughout Wales is characterised by “kaleidoscopic variation” (Baker 1993:15), teachers use a wide variety of teaching methods and bilingual teaching. Following interviews / observations at bilingual secondary and primary schools throughout Wales during 2007-2009, this paper will explain the aims and methodology of the research project in question, before moving on to discuss some initial findings. Specific reference is made to purposeful concurrent use of language, as teachers use both languages concurrently during the lesson. The conclusion is reached that further research is necessary into the 'kaleidoscopic variation' of bilingual educational practice in schools in Wales, as well as the analysis and evaluation of the bilingual teaching modules which were observed.
Are small peptides a nutrition source for plant and micro-organisms in the ...
Are small peptides a nutrition source for plant and micro-organisms in the maritime Antarctic?
Nitrogen (N) is the most important element that controls plant growth. During the past twenty years, our understanding of which N species are important for plant growth has developed significantly but it is still thought that large nitrogenous molecules need to be broken down into their constituent amino acids to be available for plant and microbial growth. This paper builds on our understanding of this process and suggests that small peptides are equally important for microbial nutrition and that soil microbes outcompete plants for low molecular weight N compounds in maritime Antarctic soil.
Penwythnos Cyfarwyddo Theatr 2013 a 2014
Cyfweliadau gyda chyfarwyddwyr theatr blaenllaw a ffilmiwyd yn ystod Penwythnos Cyfarwyddo Theatr 2013 a 2014. Dyma brosiect cydweithredol a drefnir gan Brifysgol De Cymru.
(Historical and contemporary use of mynd i (go to) in Welsh: A study of gra...
(Historical and contemporary use of mynd i (go to) in Welsh: A study of grammaticalization as language change)
The use of verbs of motion to express futurity is recognized cross-linguistically as an example of grammaticalization, whereby a construction changes over time to be less concrete and more grammatical. A number of historical and contemporary Welsh corpora are qualitatively analysed in order to identify the diachronic development of ‘mynd i’ (going to) to express the future in Welsh. Some examples of the grammaticalized form of ‘mynd i’ are found in texts from the sixteenth and seventeenth century, indicating that the grammaticalization process started at least 500 years ago, but the construction does not become prominent until the twentieth century. It is argued that this is an example of the influence of English grammar, where ‘BE + going to’ has also historically gone through a process of grammaticalization, and that an increase in bilingualism in Wales in the twentieth century has been a factor in normalising the grammaticalized form. A discussion is provided of how the situation of this Welsh construction informs our knowledge of the effect of language contact on grammaticalization.
A pilot study of the speech errors of candidates of the WJEC Use of Welsh e...
A pilot study of the speech errors of candidates of the WJEC Use of Welsh examinations
This paper is based on a pilot study aimed at defining and identifying the most common speech errors made by candidates for the WJEC’s Use of Welsh examinations at Intermediate and Advanced Levels in the CQFW, during the oral tests associated with these examinations. The paper explores how the speech errors observed can be classified, and if it is possible to use the resulting data to discover whether they can be regarded as linguistic variables in their own right and used to explore their relationship with non-linguistic factors such as context, age, upbringing and social background as part of a comprehensive study based on a much larger sample of informants.
Linguistic variation amongst Welsh speakers in Treorchy at the end of the s...
Linguistic variation amongst Welsh speakers in Treorchy at the end of the seventies
This paper attempts to account for the linguistic variation amongst the Welsh speakers of the Treorci area of the Rhondda Fawr valley at the end of the 1970s. This is done by using and adapting sociolinguistic techniques developed by pioneers in the field, in particular William Labov. The paper begins with a classical phonological description of the Welsh used by the native speakers recorded. It then goes on to explore the relationship between the ‘free’ variation recorded in informants’ speech, through the concept of the linguistic variable and the social network. A detailed analysis of the data is given – both quantitative and qualitative – which adds to our knowledge of Welsh dialects, and also helps us to understand how social factors influence the choice of language by individual speakers.
The Scrum: Justice and Responsibility
In this article we argue that the current laws of the scrum in Rugby Union inevitably lead to unfairness. The scrum is so biomechanically complex that it is impossible for a referee to reliably determine who deserves punishment when the scrum collapses. Consequently, undeserved penalties are inevitable. Furthermore, the players who are penalised may not be causally or morally responsible for the offence. Under certain pressures, they have no choice but to collapse. Resolving the issue is not an easy matter. There is an inevitable trade-off to be negotiated between fairness on the one hand and tradition, excitement and entertainment on the other.
The Phenomenology of Addiction: a former professional footballer’s experien...
The Phenomenology of Addiction: a former professional footballer’s experience
This article examines the story of a former professional footballer in recovery from alcoholism in order to improve our understanding of the nature of addiction and its manifestation in his life in general and his career in particular. Flanagan’s (2011) account of the phenomenology of addiction is used to interpret the feelings and emotions underlying and contributing to the chaos and confusion which characterise the former player’s account of his life.
The Natural Law Ethics of John Duns Scotus: does it have ‘Welsh’ connection...
The Natural Law Ethics of John Duns Scotus: does it have ‘Welsh’ connections?
It is argued that John Duns Scotus’s treatment of concrete moral topics such as slavery, inheritance and marriage exhibits characteristics of medieval Welsh laws. This is explicable by the latter’s closeness to the ancient Brythonic laws of Scotland. Their commonalities explain John Duns Scotus’s attitude to these topics and the use he makes of natural law theory alongside the Book of Genesis to defend his viewpoints. The inference is made that his aim was to develop a critical account of the natural law which could defend the ideal of the ancient Brythonic laws of Scotland against Anglo-Norman hostility.