In this article we argue that the current laws of the scrum in Rugby Union inevitably lead to unfairness. The scrum is so biomechanically complex that it is impossible for a referee to reliably determine who deserves punishment when the scrum collapses. Consequently, undeserved penalties are inevitable. Furthermore, the players who are penalised may not be causally or morally responsible for the offence. Under certain pressures, they have no choice but to collapse. Resolving the issue is not an easy matter. There is an inevitable trade-off to be negotiated between fairness on the one hand and tradition, excitement and entertainment on the other.
The Scrum: Justice and Responsibility
The Phenomenology of Addiction: a former professional footballer’s experien...
The Phenomenology of Addiction: a former professional footballer’s experience
This article examines the story of a former professional footballer in recovery from alcoholism in order to improve our understanding of the nature of addiction and its manifestation in his life in general and his career in particular. Flanagan’s (2011) account of the phenomenology of addiction is used to interpret the feelings and emotions underlying and contributing to the chaos and confusion which characterise the former player’s account of his life.
The Natural Law Ethics of John Duns Scotus: does it have ‘Welsh’ connection...
The Natural Law Ethics of John Duns Scotus: does it have ‘Welsh’ connections?
It is argued that John Duns Scotus’s treatment of concrete moral topics such as slavery, inheritance and marriage exhibits characteristics of medieval Welsh laws. This is explicable by the latter’s closeness to the ancient Brythonic laws of Scotland. Their commonalities explain John Duns Scotus’s attitude to these topics and the use he makes of natural law theory alongside the Book of Genesis to defend his viewpoints. The inference is made that his aim was to develop a critical account of the natural law which could defend the ideal of the ancient Brythonic laws of Scotland against Anglo-Norman hostility.
Speaking the language of the home when the home is unaffordable
Over the last quarter century, housing has become increasingly unaffordable for thevast majority of people. This article seeks to address what has caused this situation, and what its effects are on the individual and on the community. It will also consider how unaffordable housing and the lack of housing opportunities for local people affects the Welsh language. The article will then consider the mechanisms that have been adopted both by the National Assembly for Wales and by the Whitehall Government to resolve the inter-related problems of unaffordable housing and local people being unable to afford to buy houses in their local area, and the extent to which these solutions provide answers to this dilemma that are sustainable in the long term. To conclude, suggestions of how to improve the existing frameworks will be proposed, along with more radical approaches to ensure that housing does not become a luxury commodity.
The Welsh language as a model for breaking the lack of use cycle in the con...
The Welsh language as a model for breaking the lack of use cycle in the context of minority languages
Using the contemporary status of the Welsh language in post-16 education and the administration of justice as models, the aim of this article is to identify a paradigm of minority language non-use that arises despite the formal provision of bilingual services and resources. Thereafter, weaknesses in this paradigm will be explored in order to evaluate how existing legislation and policies may be employed in a manner that facilitates a change in linguistic behaviour from that which normalises minority language non-use to one that maximises the opportunities for meaningful linguistic choices.
Sir John Prise: Mediaevalist or Humanist?
Sir John Prise (1501/2‒1555), of Brecon, was among the most influential servants of the Crown in Wales and the Marches at a time of great political and religious change. He was also one of the first among the Welsh to respond positively to some of the new cultural and intellectual emphases connected with the Renaissance. This article discusses the tension between, on the one hand, Prise’s learning and humanist outlook and, on the other hand, his attachment to the popular account of the history of Britain presented by Geoffrey of Monmouth in the twelfth century, an account that was largely rejected by the Italian Polydore Vergil in a work first published in the 1530s.
Teachers as learners – perspectives on second language practitioners’ confi...
Teachers as learners – perspectives on second language practitioners’ confidence in supporting Welsh Language ...
Welsh Language Development in the Foundation Phase in Wales is an area of some significance and thus this article focuses on the perspectives of practitioners who speak Welsh as a second language and who teach Welsh as a second language in the Foundation Phase. The depth of challenge of teaching a language in which they are not entirely confident is evaluated, considering some of the implications of their perspectives. The confidence of the practitioners is considered in the context of Welsh policy and curriculum, which suggests that this phase and area of education may be rather invisible in terms of the development of Welsh, but that it impacts a significant number of Foundation Phase pupils in Wales. It is suggested that this element of the Foundation Phase requires consideration and attention in the very near future.
Historical climate: The potential of Wales’s documentary sources
With the uncertainty of climate change, reconstructions from parameteorological and phenological records provide a strong basis for the analysis of past and present climate. However, very little research has been completed on the historical climate of Wales, which is variable throughout the country due to factors such as topography and atmospheric circulation. This is particularly so for west Wales, which has a diverse range of environments from the upland ‘green desert’ to the fertile coastal plains, where an extensive history may potentially be reconstructed from un-tapped documentary resources. The potential is immense as possible sources of meteorological information include all religious, official and personal documentation, which may provide an insight into the relationship between the Welsh and the weather.
Bilingual Juries: A Celtic Dilemma?
Although the criminal justice system is not a devolved matter, elements of criminal law administration, which is the process of implementing the law, have developed distinctive Welsh structures and aspects. This can be seen in the context of Assembly Government crime prevention policies, and in particular the issue of youth crime, for example. In a sense, the identity of Wales within the constitution has led to the creation of certain distinctively Welsh processes and policies in terms of criminal justice administration. This paper gives consideration to a specific issue relating to criminal justice and its relationship to identity, within two jurisdictions. The question under discussion is, should there be a right to bilingual juries in certain criminal cases in Wales and Ireland. I shall analyse the relationship between jury service as an obligation and privilege of citizenship, and the competence of Irish and Welsh speakers as a linguistic group for jury service. The analysis will consider also the relationship between the concept of jury service as a privilege of citizenship and the rights and interests of individual speakers within the criminal justice system. It can be seen that this is a matter that demands a multifaceted evaluation from a variety of perspectives. This paper deals also with the objection to bilingual juries, and considers how granting bilingual juries can be consistent with the principle of random jury selection (the basis of the main objection to bilingual juries in Wales and Ireland), thus securing a representative, competent, fair and impartial tribunal.
'Towards the light': Parents’ reasons for choosing Welsh education for thei...
'Towards the light': Parents’ reasons for choosing Welsh education for their children in Cwm Rhymni
Welsh-medium education has long been seen as an effective language planning tool in order to transmit the Welsh language in Wales. According to the 2001 Census, there has been a substantial increase in the numbers of Welsh speakers 3–15 years old, especially in south–east Wales, since the 1991 Census. The aim of this paper is to elaborate upon this quantitative data by providing qualitative data with regard to the main reasons and incentives for parents to choose this educational option for their children. The study location is Cwm Rhymni, Caerffili county. A combination of quantitative questionnaires and qualitative in-depth interviews were administered amongst parents from the meithrin, primary and secondary school sectors in Cwm Rhymni. The reasons why parents choose this educational system for their children were cultural, educational, economic and personal. However, it is pertinent to note from the outset, that the parents chose Welsh-medium education for their children in this area for mainly cultural reasons, rather than economic reasons which featured heavily in past studies such as research by Williams et al. (1978) on bilingual education in the Rhondda. This study is the first in a larger corpus of work and one that hopes to address the existing lacunae in the Sociology of Language in Wales, especially as there is a lack of Sociology of Language studies through the medium of Welsh in Wales.
The importance of chemical fingerprinting for Icelandic volcanic ash: The G...
The importance of chemical fingerprinting for Icelandic volcanic ash: The Grákolla tephra, Torfajökull volcano
Tephrochronology studies in the North Atlantic typically focus on large scale silicic volcanic eruptions such as the Askja 1875, Hekla 1104 and Öræfajokull 1362. However, smaller-scale Icelandic eruptions are becoming more important as regional time marker horizons and have the potential for application across widerdistances e.g. the Eyjafjallajökull eruption of 2010. The Grákolla tephra is one such layer, sourced within the Torfajökull volcanic system. On the basis of major element chemistry, the tephra layer exhibits an identical geochemical fingerprint to the Landnám tephra, which is also sourced from the Torfajökull system. However, distinct differences are discernible on the basis of trace element chemistry, although some data overlap remains. This realisation highlights the potential for introducing significant age discrepancies to a dating framework based on recent silicic Torfajökull tephra deposits in the Faroe Islands if tephra identification is based solely on major element chemistry. Six hundred years separate the eruptions, which although a relatively short time frame for geological events, represents a significant time frame for the dating of human events.
Identity and Language in the works of Grazia Deledda
This article aims to draw critical attention to interesting features in the work of the Sardinian author, Grazia Deledda (1871-1936), an author who has not received sufficient critical attention. The article examines the relationship between identity, language and narrative in two of Deledda’s key novels, namely La madre (The Woman and the Priest / The Mother) and Il segreto dell'uomo solitario (The Secret of the Solitary Man). It analyses the way in which the two protagonists undergo a journey of self-understanding by facing their hopes and troubles in life. We see that while linguistic interaction is necessary for some, language itself serves as a weapon for others to control their own identity and even the identity of others.